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Northumberland was furiously ambitious, and aimed to secure Protestant uniformity while making himself rich with land and money in the process. He ordered churches to be stripped of all traditional Catholic symbolism, resulting in the simplicity often seen in Church of England churches today. A revision of the Book of Common Prayer was published in When Edward VI became ill in , his advisers looked to the possible imminent accession of the Catholic Lady Mary, and feared that she would overturn all the reforms made during Edward's reign.
Perhaps surprisingly, it was the dying Edward himself who feared a return to Catholicism, and wrote a new will repudiating the will of Henry VIII.
Northumberland married Jane to his youngest son Guildford Dudley , allowing himself to get the most out of a necessary Protestant succession. Most of Edward's council signed the Devise for the Succession , and when Edward VI died on 6 July from his battle with tuberculosis, Lady Jane was proclaimed queen. However, the popular support for the rightful successor Mary — even though she was Catholic — overruled Northumberland's plans, and Jane, who had never wanted to accept the crown, was deposed after just nine days.
Mary's supporters joined her in a triumphal procession to London, accompanied by her younger sister Elizabeth.
The prospect of a marriage alliance with Spain proved unpopular with the English people, who were worried that Spain would use England as a satellite, involving England in wars without the popular support of the people. Popular discontent grew; a Protestant courtier, Thomas Wyatt the younger , led a rebellion against Mary aiming to depose and replace her with her half-sister Elizabeth. The plot was discovered, and Wyatt's supporters were hunted down and killed. Wyatt himself was tortured, in the hope that he would give evidence that Elizabeth was involved so that Mary could have her executed for treason.
Wyatt never implicated Elizabeth, and he was beheaded. Elizabeth spent her time between different prisons, including the Tower of London. Mary married Philip at Winchester Cathedral , on 25 July Philip found her unattractive, and only spent a minimal amount of time with her. Despite Mary believing she was pregnant numerous times during her five-year reign, she never reproduced. Devastated that she rarely saw her husband, and anxious that she was not bearing an heir to Catholic England, Mary became bitter.
In her determination to restore England to the Catholic faith and to secure her throne from Protestant threats, she had Protestants burnt at the stake in the Marian Persecutions between and Protestants came to hate her as "Bloody Mary. Mary's dream of a new, Catholic Habsburg line was finished, and her popularity further declined when she lost the last English area on French soil, Calais , to Francis, Duke of Guise , on 7 January Mary's reign, however, introduced a new coining system that would be used until the 18th century, and her marriage to Philip II created new trade routes for England.
Mary's government took a number of steps towards reversing the inflation, budgetary deficits, poverty, and trade crisis of her kingdom. She explored the commercial potential of Russian, African, and Baltic markets, revised the customs system, worked to counter the currency debasements of her predecessors, amalgamated several revenue courts, and strengthened the governing authority of the middling and larger towns.
Had she lived a little longer, Catholicism, which she worked so hard to restore into the realm might have taken deeper roots than it did. However, her actions in pursuit of this goal arguably spurred on the Protestant cause, through the many martyrs she made. Mary died on 17 November at the relatively young age of Elizabeth I, who was staying at Hatfield House at the time of her accession, rode to London to the cheers of both the ruling class and the common people.
When Elizabeth came to the throne, there was much apprehension among members of the council appointed by Mary, because many of them as noted by the Spanish ambassador had participated in several plots against Elizabeth, such as her imprisonment in the Tower, trying to force her to marry a foreign prince and thereby sending her out of the realm, and even pushing for her death.
Under Mary, he had been spared, and often visited Elizabeth, ostensibly to review her accounts and expenditure. Elizabeth also appointed her personal favourite, the son of the Duke of Northumberland Lord Robert Dudley , her Master of the Horse , giving him constant personal access to the queen.
Elizabeth had a long, turbulent path to the throne.
Tudor Facts for Children and Teachers
She had a number of problems during her childhood, one of the main ones being after the execution of her mother, Anne Boleyn. When Anne was beheaded, Henry declared Elizabeth an illegitimate child and she would, therefore, not be able to inherit the throne. After the death of her father, she was raised by his widow, Catherine Parr and her husband Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley.
A scandal arose with her and the Lord Admiral to which she stood trial.
During the examinations, she answered truthfully and boldly and all charges were dropped. She was an excellent student, well-schooled in Latin, French, Italian, and somewhat in Greek, and was a talented writer. No proof could be found that Elizabeth was involved and she was released and retired to the countryside until the death of her sister, Mary I of England. Elizabeth was a moderate Protestant; she was the daughter of Anne Boleyn , who played a key role in the English Reformation in the s. She had been brought up by Blanche Herbert Lady Troy.
At her coronation in January , many of the bishops — Catholic, appointed by Mary, who had expelled many of the Protestant clergymen when she became queen in — refused to perform the service in English. Eventually, the relatively minor Bishop of Carlisle , Owen Oglethorpe , performed the ceremony; but when Oglethorpe attempted to perform traditional Catholic parts of the Coronation, Elizabeth got up and left.
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Following the Coronation, two important Acts were passed through parliament: the Act of Uniformity and the Act of Supremacy , establishing the Protestant Church of England and creating Elizabeth Supreme Governor of the Church of England Supreme Head , the title used by her father and brother, was seen as inappropriate for a woman ruler. These acts, known collectively as the Elizabethan Religious Settlement , made it compulsory to attend church services every Sunday; and imposed an oath on clergymen and statesmen to recognise the Church of England , the independence of the Church of England from the Catholic Church, and the authority of Elizabeth as Supreme Governor.
Elizabeth made it clear that if they refused the oath the first time, they would have a second opportunity, after which, if the oath was not sworn, the offenders would be deprived of their offices and estates. Even though Elizabeth was only twenty-five when she came to the throne, she was absolutely sure of her God-given place to be the queen and of her responsibilities as the 'handmaiden of the Lord'. She never let anyone challenge her authority as queen, even though many people, who felt she was weak and should be married, tried to do so.
Tudor Kings and Queens
Also, without an heir, the Tudor line would end; the risk of civil war between rival claimants was a possibility if Elizabeth died childless. Numerous suitors from nearly all European nations sent ambassadors to English court to put forward their suit. Risk of death came dangerously close in when Elizabeth caught smallpox ; when she was most at risk, she named Robert Dudley as Lord Protector in the event of her death. After her recovery, she appointed Dudley to the Privy Council and created him Earl of Leicester , in the hope that he would marry Mary, Queen of Scots.
Although many Catholics were loyal to Elizabeth, many also believed that, because Elizabeth was declared illegitimate after her parents' marriage was annulled , Mary was the strongest legitimate claimant. Despite this, Elizabeth would not name Mary her heir; as she had experienced during the reign of her predecessor Mary I, the opposition could flock around the heir if they were disheartened with Elizabeth's rule.
Numerous threats to the Tudor line occurred during Elizabeth's reign. The plot , masterminded by Roberto di Ridolfi , was discovered and Norfolk was beheaded. The next major uprising was in , when Robert Devereux , the second Earl of Essex , attempted to raise the city of London against Elizabeth's government.
The city of London proved unwilling to rebel; Essex and most of his co-rebels were executed. Threats also came from abroad. In , Pope Pius V issued a Papal bull , Regnans in Excelsis , excommunicating Elizabeth, and releasing her subjects from their allegiance to her. Elizabeth came under pressure from Parliament to execute Mary, Queen of Scots, to prevent any further attempts to replace her; though faced with several official requests, she vacillated over the decision to execute an anointed queen.
Finally, she was persuaded of Mary's treasonous complicity in the plotting against her, and she signed the death warrant in There are many reasons debated as to why Elizabeth never married. It was rumoured that she was in love with Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester , and that on one of her summer progresses she had birthed his illegitimate child. This rumour was just one of many that swirled around the two's long-standing friendship. However, more important to focus on were the disasters that many women, such as Lady Jane Grey , suffered due to being married into the royal family.
Her sister Mary's marriage to Philip brought great contempt to the country, for many of her subjects despised Spain and Philip and feared that he would try to take complete control. Recalling her father's disdain for Anne of Cleves , Elizabeth also refused to enter into a foreign match with a man that she had never seen before, so that also eliminated a large number of suitors.
Despite the uncertainty of Elizabeth's — and therefore the Tudors' — hold on England, she never married.
The Complete Tudor Dynasty for Kids! Carol Derbyshire
Despite Elizabeth's government constantly begging her to marry in the early years of her reign, it was now persuading Elizabeth not to marry the French prince, for his mother, Catherine de' Medici , was suspected of ordering the St Bartholomew's Day massacre of tens of thousands of French Protestant Huguenots in Elizabeth bowed to public feeling against the marriage, learning from the mistake her sister made when she married Philip II of Spain , and sent the Duke of Anjou away. Elizabeth knew that the continuation of the Tudor line was now impossible; she was forty-eight in , and too old to bear children.
The Spanish invasion fleet outnumbered the English fleet's 22 galleons and armed merchant ships. While Elizabeth declined physically with age, her running of the country continued to benefit her people.
Who were the Tudors?
In response to famine across England due to bad harvests in the s, Elizabeth introduced the poor law , allowing peasants who were too ill to work a certain amount of money from the state. All the money Elizabeth had borrowed from Parliament in 12 of the 13 parliamentary sessions was paid back; by the time of her death, Elizabeth not only had no debts, but was in credit. Elizabeth died childless at Richmond Palace on 24 March She left behind a legacy and monarchy worth noting. She had pursued her goals of being well endowed with every aspect of ruling her kingdom, and of knowing everything necessary to be an effective monarch.
She took part in law, economics, politics and governmental issues both domestic and abroad. Realms that had once been strictly forbidden to the female gender had now been ruled by one. Elizabeth never named a successor. There has been discussion over the selected heir. It has been argued that Elizabeth would have selected James because she felt guilty about what happened to his mother, her cousin.
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