Bregdan anweald gafeluc! In the first case, both the noun and the adjective remain in the nominative, as they occur in the spell. The translation, however, treats bregdan as a transitive verb, which would then require the direct object case. As there is no article or some other defining word, the adjective anweald would probably take the strong declension inflection: Bregdan anwealdne gafeluc. Once again, in the absence of defining words, the adjective follows the pattern of the strong declension.
Both the noun and the adjective appear in their proper cases and wanne even obeys the strong declension pattern. Release the darkness that remains inside you; chaos, begin! The adjectives in the remaining two spells concern referents that cannot be identified from the linguistic context only. Verbs This section focuses on Old English verbs in the spells, in terms of mood, voice, tense and subject-verb concord.
It also analyses adherence to the rules of subject-verb agreement. Sudden blast of wind, blow! You, strong and unstoppable storm of wind, obey! I command you with all my power to blow and devastate [rage] violently! Strike this witch! Beo is not only the imperative but the subjunctive form too, so the second sentence can be interpreted both ways.
Word order is another noticeable feature of these spells.
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The verb precedes the subject in several cases. The following spells were found to disobey the rule of subject-verb agreement by employing singular imperatives with nouns in plural. Boots, be still. Guide the boots. Yield and came here again. Ready again and destroy again. Grief, Uther Pendragon. The sentences entail more than one kind of disagreement.
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The perhaps a bit unusual use of the past tense has been noted in the following spells. It highlights interesting and unusual word choices by the translators, as well as those which seem to be their own imaginative coinages. It also attempts to shed light on what appear to be less comprehensible spells.
Unlike the previous sections, this one does not delve as much into grammar-induced difficulties, as the focus is rather on clarifying ambiguous word meanings. The analysis has shown some of the nouns and expressions to be part of what could be termed funeralspeak, as many of the spells relate to funerals. Fire attack!
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Be turned away from evil arts! The latter spell is repeated once more at the end of the episode, with Ablinnan as a separate sentence. I convert this. Quickly make it no longer useless. Quickly breathe now.
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Come and grant me rapture. Illuminate the darkness, let me see through the rough water, mark the water when the pain is increased. Darkness bind, guard me storm, indicate, storm, when the pain is increased. Die servant and grow inf.
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Absent knight, arise! He is insane and an evil sickness causes his heart to fall. His endetima is on ofost. The accomplishment of his fate is visible. Now his hands are bloody and he cannot cleanse them. The end of his life is in haste. She spoke. This borrowing strategy has been employed in several enchantments which prove to be composed of lines taken from Beowulf, The Ruin Merlin Wiki and The Dream of the Rood. Bits and pieces of Beowulf are scattered throughout an entire episode of season one.
The adapted lines in question We-Gar Dena … do indeed come from Beowulf qtd. Ic can stanas tobrytan. I have the knowledge to break the stones into pieces. The first one, Him? Fromum feohgiftum is the enchantment he speaks to create a guiding light to assist Arthur. Not in this world. Interestingly, the text of the poem has been damaged possibly by fire , suffering the same destiny as the ruined city it depicts Magennis Unlike the previous two, this borrowing seems more straightforward.
Betend crungon hergas to hrusan. Forpon pas hofu dreorgiad, ond paes teaforgeapa tigelum sceaded. Crungon walo wide, cwoman woldagas ond paes teaforgeapa tigelum sceaded hrostbeages hrof Their bulwarks were broken, their halls laid waste, the cities crumbled, those who would repair it laid in the earth.
Most of them draw on the use of verbs, either in their imperative or infinitive form. Merlin the Complete Guide qtd. Similar effects are achieved by means of another two spells.
Merlin commands a boat to move using two different spells. Both are possible but the adjective might have to take the plural form if it is to refer to those who are about to be spellbound. The remaining two spells were perhaps a bit more unusual word choices.
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Unaltered spells This final category comprises the spells which have been found to adhere to Old English grammatical rules and display unambiguous vocabulary, for the most part. As these sentences do not appear as problematic as the previous ones, the aim of the discussion will be to identify the patterns which seem to be behind their construction and consequently group them into appropriate categories, as well as to improve the translation where necessary. The analysis has shown most of these spells to function as commands or instructions, similarly to the one-word spells.
The following spells appear to be composed of the addressee and the verb imperative or infinitive explaining what action is to be performed by the addressee. Other spells could be categorized according to their purpose as they retain the same verb or its synonym , changing only the subject or the object, or rarely adding an adverb.
Swilte occurs in the spells which are intended to cause death: Swilte, Merlin!
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